A Major Discovery at MIT Could Lead to a Process for Storing Solar Energy

While politicians have been debating whether or not to allow offshore drilling for oil, scientists at major research universities are hard at work resolving some of the barriers to alternatives to fossil fuels. Sunlight has the greatest potential of any power source to solve the world’s energy problem.  In one hour, enough sunlight strikes the Earth to provide the entire planet’s energy needs for one year. The major barrier to solar energy has been the inability to store it in an efficient, cost effective way. 

Last week a team of scientists at MIT announced a breakthrough process for solar energy storage that is similar to the natural process of photosynthesis:

Until now, solar power has been a daytime-only energy source, because storing extra solar energy for later use is prohibitively expensive and grossly inefficient. With today’s announcement, MIT researchers have hit upon a simple, inexpensive, highly efficient process for storing solar energy.

Requiring nothing but abundant, non-toxic natural materials, this discovery could unlock the most potent, carbon-free energy source of all: the sun. “This is the nirvana of what we’ve been talking about for years,” said MIT’s Daniel Nocera, the Henry Dreyfus Professor of Energy at MIT and senior author of a paper describing the work in the July 31 issue of Science. “Solar power has always been a limited, far-off solution. Now we can seriously think about solar power as unlimited and soon.”

Inspired by the photosynthesis performed by plants, Nocera and Matthew Kanan, a postdoctoral fellow in Nocera’s lab, have developed an unprecedented process that will allow the sun’s energy to be used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen gases. Later, the oxygen and hydrogen may be recombined inside a fuel cell, creating carbon-free electricity to power your house or your electric car, day or night.

The key component in Nocera and Kanan’s new process is a new catalyst that produces oxygen gas from water; another catalyst produces valuable hydrogen gas. The new catalyst consists of cobalt metal, phosphate and an electrode, placed in water. When electricity — whether from a photovoltaic cell, a wind turbine or any other source — runs through the electrode, the cobalt and phosphate form a thin film on the electrode, and oxygen gas is produced.

Combined with another catalyst, such as platinum, that can produce hydrogen gas from water, the system can duplicate the water splitting reaction that occurs during photosynthesis.

The new catalyst works at room temperature, in neutral pH water, and it’s easy to set up, Nocera said. “That’s why I know this is going to work. It’s so easy to implement,” he said.

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2 comments

  1. I re-read this story after someone forwarded a copy, and noticed something rather odd: it’s got nothing to do with solar power, really. Or photosynthesis. Just a catalyst for hydrolysis. Good stuff, but strange and seemingly overblown reporting.

  2. Tom,
    Sure, this is basic research and any claims about practical applications will always be premature. I guess my point was about the shortsighted nature of political discourse. Rather than advocate the funding of this type of research, the pols and the msm debate off-shore drilling. This is really “shuffling deck chairs” rather than envisioning, initiating, coordinating and implementing a program to address the energy crisis.

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